Work-Sports Enrichment in Amateur Runners: A Diary Study

Anniek Postema, Arnold B. Bakker, Heleen van Mierlo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


Many employees worldwide combine a job with serious, goal-oriented ambitions in the athletic domain. However, scientific knowledge about day-to-day linkages between work and sports is lacking. We filled this gap in the literature by examining how experiences at work can enrich sports after work. Extending the work-home resources model to the work-sports interface, we posited that proactive work behaviors positively relate to work engagement–a state that may permeate into the sports domain and relate to positive sports outcomes. We conducted a diary study among 170 working recreational runners (598 measurement occasions). Within a three-week period, participants completed two surveys on days they worked and ran after work. Survey 1, completed at the end of the workday, covering proactive work behavior and work engagement, and survey 2, completed after running and covering running performance. The results of multilevel structural equation modeling indicated that on days employees showed more proactive behavior, they also reported higher work engagement. In turn, on days they reported higher work engagement, they recorded a steadier running pace. We discuss how these findings support the phenomenon of work-to-sports spillover and contribute to the current understanding of the interplay between work and sports.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)406-425
Number of pages20
JournalThe Journal of Psychology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Job crafting
  • running performance
  • spillover
  • work engagement
  • work-home resources model

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Business, Management and Accounting (miscellaneous)
  • Education
  • General Psychology


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