What we don’t know and what the future holds

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


This final chapter will seek to answer some of the pressing questions in the field of photobiomodulation (PBM) for brain disorders, and also focuses on what the future holds. The pertinent questions are: What are the best diseases and conditions to be treated? How important is penetration to the brain? What about systemic effects? What is best way to deliver light? How important is pulsing? How important is the location on the head? How important is the biphasic dose response? What about cognitive enhancement and preconditioning? How does PBM compare with other noninvasive brain stimulation devices? Could an invasive approach be considered?.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationPhotobiomodulation in the Brain
Subtitle of host publicationLow-Level Laser (Light) Therapy in Neurology and Neuroscience
Number of pages15
ISBN (Electronic)9780128153055
ISBN (Print)9780128153062
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • Brain diseases
  • Light penetration
  • Noninvasive brain stimulation
  • Pulsing
  • System effects

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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