Using the job demands-resources model to predict burnout and performance

Arnold B. Bakker, Evangelia Demerouti, Willem Verbeke

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1502 Citations (Scopus)


The job demands-resources (JD-R) model was used to examine the relationship between job characteristics, burnout, and (other-ratings of) performance (N = 146). We hypothesized that job demands (e.g., work pressure and emotional demands) would be the most important antecedents of the exhaustion component of burnout, which, in turn, would predict in-role performance (hypothesis 1). In contrast, job resources (e.g., autonomy and social support) were hypothesized to be the most important predictors of extra-role performance, through their relationship with the disengagement component of burnout (hypothesis 2). In addition, we predicted that job resources would buffer the relationship between job demands and exhaustion (hypothesis 3), and that exhaustion would be positively related to disengagement (hypothesis 4). The results of structural equation modeling analyses provided strong support for hypotheses 1, 2, and 4, but rejected hypothesis 3. These findings support the JD-R model's claim that job demands and job resources initiate two psychological processes, which eventually affect organizational outcomes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)83-104
Number of pages22
JournalHuman Resource Management
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2004
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Applied Psychology
  • Strategy and Management
  • Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management
  • Management of Technology and Innovation


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