Untargeted Metabolomics Profiling of Arabidopsis WT, lbr-2-2 and bak1-4 Mutants Following Treatment with Two LPS Chemotypes

Benedict C. Offor, Msizi I. Mhlongo, Paul A. Steenkamp, Ian A. Dubery, Lizelle A. Piater

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Plants perceive pathogenic threats from the environment that have evaded preformed barriers through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that recognise microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs). The perception of and triggered defence to lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) as a MAMP is well-studied in mammals, but little is known in plants, including the PRR(s). Understanding LPS-induced secondary metabolites and perturbed metabolic pathways in Arabidopsis will be key to generating disease-resistant plants and improving global plant crop yield. Recently, Arabidopsis LPS-binding protein (LBP) and bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI)-related proteins (LBP/BPI related-1) and (LBP/BPI related-2) were shown to perceive LPS from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and trigger defence responses. In turn, brassinosteroid insensitive 1 (BRI1)-associated receptor kinase 1 (BAK1) is a well-established co-receptor for several defence-related PRRs in plants. Due to the lack of knowledge pertaining to LPS perception in plants and given the involvement of the afore-mentioned proteins in MAMPs recognition, in this study, Arabidopsis wild type (WT) and mutant (lbr2-2 and bak1-4) plants were pressure-infiltrated with LPSs purified from Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst) and Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris 8004 (Xcc). Metabolites were extracted from the leaves at four time points over a 24 h period and analysed by UHPLC-MS, generating distinct metabolite profiles. Data analysed using unsupervised and supervised multivariate data analysis (MVDA) tools generated results that reflected time-and treatment-related variations after both LPS chemotypes treatments. Forty-five significant metabolites were putatively annotated and belong to the following groups: glucosinolates, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, flavonoids, lignans, lipids, oxylipins, arabidopsides and phytohormones, while metabolic pathway analysis (MetPA) showed enrichment of flavone and flavanol biosynthesis, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, alpha-linolenic acid metabolism and glucosinolate biosynthesis. Distinct metabolite accumulations depended on the LPS chemotype and the genetic background of the lbr2-2 and bak1-4 mutants. This study highlights the role of LPSs in the reprogramming Arabidopsis metabolism into a defensive state, and the possible role of LBR and BAK1 proteins in LPSs perception and thus plant defence against pathogenic bacteria.

Original languageEnglish
Article number379
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - May 2022


  • Arabidopsis thaliana
  • BAK1
  • LBR2
  • LPS
  • Pseudomonas syringae
  • Xanthomonas campestris
  • untargeted metabolomics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology


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