Towards a multilevel approach of employee well-being

Research output: Contribution to journalComment/debate

105 Citations (Scopus)


In this commentary, I respond to Ilies, Aw & Pluut’s (Intraindividual models of employee well-being: What have we learned and where do we go from here?, European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, in press) call for a theory that distinguishes between traits and states of employee well-being. I use Job Demands–Resources theory to illustrate how we may integrate within- and between-person approaches and findings to design an overall multilevel model of employee well-being. My perspective builds on Ilies et al. and recent findings of research combining relatively stable “traits” with fluctuating states of employee well-being. My goals with this commentary are three-fold: (1) give more insight into possible differences between variables at different levels of analysis; (2) use research to show how trait and state levels of (predictors of) employee well-being may interact; (3) propose a multilevel model that may stimulate future research on the topic.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)839-843
Number of pages5
JournalEuropean Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2 Nov 2015
Externally publishedYes


  • affective events
  • diary studies
  • employee well-being
  • job demands–resources theory
  • work engagement

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Applied Psychology
  • Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management


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