Tin dioxide as a photocatalyst for water treatment: A review

Abdullah M. Al-Hamdi, Uwe Rinner, Mika Sillanpää

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

221 Citations (Scopus)


Many phenols, phthalates and other toxins are released into the environment from industrial or agricultural processes, or household waste. These compounds are often stable and difficult to degrade in wastewater facilities, thus posing a serious long-time risk. The development of novel and efficient technologies for the environmentally sustainable removal of these dangerous compounds from different sources is of crucial importance. The photocatalytic oxidation of organic pollutants in the presence of semiconductors such as tin(IV) oxide (SnO2) is a green technology and seems to be a highly promising technique for water treatment and for the removal of recalcitrant compounds. The photocatalytic efficiency of SnO2can be enhanced via modifications in the design of the metal oxide, resulting in a lower recombination rate of electron–hole pairs and an increase in the efficiency of the semiconductor during the excitation state, which allows the degradation process of toxins to proceed under UV or visible light irradiation. This review article summarizes some of the most relevant investigations and fundamental aspects related to SnO2and its activity and discusses recent achievements in the modification of SnO2as a photocatalyst for phenol degradation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)190-205
Number of pages16
JournalProcess Safety and Environmental Protection
Publication statusPublished - 2017
Externally publishedYes


  • Photocatalysis
  • Photodegradation
  • SnOdoping
  • Tin(IV) oxide

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • General Chemical Engineering
  • Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality


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