Time-dependent photobiomodulation management of neuropathic pain induced by spinal cord injury in male rats

Atousa Janzadeh, Fatemeh Ramezani, Sogol Yousefi, Michael R. Hamblin, Negin Mojarad, Farinaz Nasirinezhad

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Neuropathic pain (NP) following spinal cord injury (SCI) often lasts for a long time and causes a range of problems that reduce the quality of life. Current treatments are not generally effective; however, photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) has made some progress in this area. Due to the novelty of this treatment, standard therapeutic protocols have not yet been agreed upon. In the present study, we compare the analgesic effect of two PBMT protocols (2 and 4 weeks of radiation). A total of thirty-two adult male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control, SCI, 2 W PBMT, and 4 W PBMT. SCI was induced by an aneurism clip and PBMT used a 660-nm, initiated 30 min post-SCI, and continued daily for 2 or 4 weeks. Functional recovery, hyperalgesia, and allodynia were measured weekly. At the end of the study, the Gad65, interleukin 1-alpha (IL1α), interleukin 10 (IL10), IL4, and purinergic receptor (P2xR and P2yR) expressions were measured. Data were analyzed by Prism6. The results showed PBM irradiation for 2 and 4 weeks had the same effects in improving hyperalgesia. In the case of allodynia and functional recovery, 4 W PBMT was more effective (p<0.01). 4 W PBMT increased the Gad65 expression (p <0.001) and reduced P2Y4R (p <0.05) compared to SCI animals. The effects of 2 and 4 W PBMT were the same for IL1α, IL10, and P2X3 receptors. 4 W PBMT was more effective in reducing the complications of SCI such as pain and disability. PBMT therapy is an effective method aimed at immune system function modulation to reduce NP and motor dysfunction.

Original languageEnglish
Article number120
JournalLasers in Medical Science
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2023


  • Inflammation
  • Low-level laser therapy
  • Neuropathic pain
  • Photobiomodulation
  • Spinal cord injury

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Dermatology


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