Time-dependent mixed convection flow of Ag–MgO/water hybrid nanofluid over a moving vertical cone with rough surface

P. M. Patil, Bharath Goudar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)


In this paper, an innovative work has been explored on mixed convective hybrid nanofluid flow in the presence of a moving cone with surface roughness. The primary aim of this analysis is to establish the significance of hybrid nanofluid characteristics influencing the wall gradients such as skin friction coefficient and the rate of heat transfer. The hybrid nanofluid comprises water as the base fluid with silver (Ag) nanoparticles and magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoparticles added to it. The flow and heat transfer characteristics governing equations are expressed in terms of nonlinear coupled partial differential equations. The solutions of these equations are attempted numerically by employing the Quasilinearization technique in combination with the implicit finite difference approximation. It is noted that the rate of energy transfer and surface friction are higher for hybrid nanofluid (φ1= 0.025 , φ2= 0.025) than that for the pure MgO nanofluid (φ1= 0 , φ2= 0.05) and pure Ag nanofluid (φ1= 0.05 , φ2= 0), wherein the net volume fraction of 5% of nanoparticles is maintained. For hybrid nanofluid, the Nusselt number rises by 12% and 6% approximately in comparison with that for the pure Ag nanofluid and pure MgO nanofluid, respectively. This result can be attributed to the strong molecular interaction between the hybrid nanoparticles suspended in the water medium. In order to confirm the authentication of the accuracy of the results of the present analysis, the fluid friction and rate of energy transfer are compared with the previous research findings. It is revealed that the present results are in good agreement with those published outcomes.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Finite difference scheme
  • Hybrid nanofluid
  • Mixed convection
  • Quasilinearization technique
  • Rough surface
  • Unsteady flow

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry


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