Thermo-metallo-mechanical based phase transformation modeling for high-speed milling of Ti–6Al–4V through stress-strain and temperature effects

Irfan Ullah, Esther Titilayo Akinlabi, Victor Songmene

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The optimization of machining parameters, tool longevity, and surface quality in High-Speed Milling (HSM) of Ti–6Al–4V relies immensely on understanding the local phase transformation. This study endeavors to build a Finite Element (FE) model capable of forecasting phase alterations during the rapid thermal fluctuations intrinsic to Ti–6Al–4V machining. Dynamic phase transformation models were initially introduced to capture rapid heating and cooling phenomena. Using a user-defined subroutine, the phase transitions predictive models were integrated into the HSM simulation within Abaqus/Explicit. Simulation outcomes unveiled phase transitions primarily occurring within the serrated chip and at the tool-workpiece interface. Notably, during rapid heating, when the cutting speed increased to 350 m/min, the β-phase volume fraction surged from 7.5 to 96.38%. A similar trend was observed with feed rate adjustments (i.e., 0.15–0.25 mm/tooth), where β-phase increased from 7.5 to 67.84%. Rapid cooling facilitated the reversion of the transformed β-phase back into the α'-phase. Finally, some advanced characterization techniques were employed to validate the developed thermo-metallo-mechanical coupled FE model for phase transformation. The simulation results verified by the experimental data promotes a better understanding of phase alteration mechanisms and microstructural evolution in HSM of Ti–6Al–4V. The current research is also beneficial for crucial insights into optimizing the machining conditions and their impact on tool-material interactions and surface integrity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)894-909
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of Materials Research and Technology
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2024
Externally publishedYes


  • Finite element method
  • High-speed milling
  • Material characterization
  • Phase transformation
  • Ti–6Al–4V

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Biomaterials
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Metals and Alloys


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