The universal design, operation and maintenance guidelines for farm constructed wetlands (FCW) in temperate climates

Aila Carty, Miklas Scholz, Kate Heal, Fabrice Gouriveau, Atif Mustafa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

86 Citations (Scopus)


This paper comprises the scientific justification for the Farm Constructed Wetland (FCW) Design Manual for Northern Ireland and Scotland. Moreover, this document addresses an international audience interested in applying wetland systems in the wider agricultural context. Farm constructed wetlands combine farm wastewater (predominantly farmyard runoff) treatment with landscape and biodiversity enhancements, and are a specific application and class of integrated constructed wetlands (ICW), which have wider applications in the treatment of other wastewater types such as domestic sewage. The aim of this review paper is to propose guidelines highlighting the rationale for FCW, including key water quality management and regulatory issues, important physical and biochemical wetland treatment processes, assessment techniques for characterizing potential FCW sites and discharge options to water bodies. The paper discusses universal design, construction, planting, maintenance and operation issues relevant specifically for FCW in a temperate climate, but highlights also catchment-specific requirements to protect the environment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6780-6792
Number of pages13
JournalBioresource Technology
Issue number15
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2008
Externally publishedYes


  • Agriculture
  • Best management practice
  • Farmyard
  • Runoff
  • Water quality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • Environmental Engineering
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Waste Management and Disposal


Dive into the research topics of 'The universal design, operation and maintenance guidelines for farm constructed wetlands (FCW) in temperate climates'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this