The structural, metamorphic and temporal evolution of the country rocks surrounding Venetia Mine, Limpopo Belt, South Africa: Evidence for a single palaeoproterozoic tectono-metamorphic event with implications for a tectonic model

M. J. Rigby, I. J. Basson, J. D. Kramers, P. Gräser, P. K. Mavimbela

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This paper presents the results of a detailed and fully integrated pressure-temperature-time-deformation (P-T-t-D) study of the country rocks around Venetia Mine in the Central Zone of the Limpopo Belt, South Africa. Detailed structural mapping around Venetia Mine delineates four deformation events (D1-D4). Relict S1 comprises quartzofeldspathic bands in biotite gneiss and amphibolite. S2, defined by biotite in biotite schist, gneissic banding in biotite gneiss, long axes of quartzofeldspathic augen, and the long axes of amphibolite lenses/boudins, is axial planar to F2. F3 occurs predominantly at the contacts between biotite gneiss and biotite schist, forming open to closed, upright to inclined, E-W- to ENE-trending, shallowly plunging folds. D4, which was constrictional-prolate in nature, refolded S1, S2, F2 and F3. F4 folds and an L4 mineral lineation, defined predominantly by sillimanite in metapelitic schist, plunge moderately NE to NNE and overprint all previous fabrics. Poles to refolded S2 foliations show a characteristic great circle distribution. In turn, the pole to this great circle coincides with the orientation of L4. Such patterns are also found in the Avoca, Bellevue and Ha-Tshansi sheath folds in the Central Zone, albeit that the plunge of the lineations at Venetia are predominantly NE-wards, rather than SW-wards. The moderately NE- to NNE-plunging F4 sheath folds and L4 lineations accord with the NE-SW trend of sheath folds and associated mineral elongation lineations observed elsewhere in the Central Zone. However, PbSL dating of syntectonic garnets constrain the minimum and maximum age of D2 and D4 structures respectively to c. 2037-2040 +/- 22Ma. The metamorphism developed in metapelitic lithologies is characterized by peak amphibolite facies conditions of ∼6.5kbar and 680°C. Pseudosection modelling of growth zoning in garnet provides evidence of a prograde pressure and temperature increase from ∼5kbar at 600°C to ∼6-6.5kbar at 650-680°C, which is interpreted to be a consequence of tectonic thickening. Collectively, the integrated P-T-t-D data unequivocally demonstrates that the country rocks around Venetia experienced a structural-metamorphic event in the palaeoproterozoic. Coupled with published data we suggest a simple two-fold tectonic model, which involves the Central Zone as separate terrane docking with the Kaapvaal during the Neoarchean and later, during the Palaeoproterozoic this Central Zone-Kaapvaal amalgam collides with the Zimbabwe Craton.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)51-69
Number of pages19
JournalPrecambrian Research
Volume186
Issue number1-4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2011

Keywords

  • Geochronology
  • Limpopo Belt
  • Metamorphism
  • P-T-t path
  • Structure
  • Tectonics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geology
  • Geochemistry and Petrology

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'The structural, metamorphic and temporal evolution of the country rocks surrounding Venetia Mine, Limpopo Belt, South Africa: Evidence for a single palaeoproterozoic tectono-metamorphic event with implications for a tectonic model'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this