The state version of the recovery experience questionnaire: A multilevel confirmatory factor analysis

Arnold B. Bakker, Ana I. Sanz-Vergel, Alfredo Rodríguez-Muñoz, Wido G.M. Oerlemans

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Citations (Scopus)


Although many studies in the field of recovery from work utilize a quantitative diary design, little is known about the validity of the daily measures used in such studies. The present study analyses the factor structure of the state version of the Recovery Experience Questionnaire (REQ) on the between-person (trait) and within-person (state) levels. A total of 127 employees participated in the study. Most of them filled out the questionnaire on three consecutive workdays (N = 375 observations). Results of multilevel confirmatory factor analyses (MCFA) showed that a four-factor model fit the data better than alternative models at both levels of analysis (between and within). In addition, some factor loadings of the four recovery experience dimensions (particularly for relaxation and control) were lower on the day level as compared to the general level. Nevertheless, we conclude that both state and trait versions of the REQ show good psychometric properties. Implications for future research on recovery are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)350-359
Number of pages10
JournalEuropean Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 4 May 2015
Externally publishedYes


  • Fatigue
  • Multilevel confirmatory factor analysis
  • Psychological detachment
  • Recovery
  • Relaxation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Applied Psychology
  • Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management


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