The Job Demands-Resources model: State of the art

Arnold B. Bakker, Evangelia Demerouti

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

6598 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to give a state-of-the art overview of the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model Design/methodology/approach - The strengths and weaknesses of the demand-control model and the effort-reward imbalance model regarding their predictive value for employee well being are discussed. The paper then introduces the more flexible JD-R model and discusses its basic premises. Findings - The paper provides an overview of the studies that have been conducted with the JD-R model. It discusses evidence for each of the model's main propositions. The JD-R model can be used as a tool for human resource management. A two-stage approach can highlight the strengths and weaknesses of individuals, work groups, departments, and organizations at large. Originality/value - This paper challenges existing stress models, and focuses on both negative and positive indicators of employee well being. In addition, it outlines how the JD-R model can be applied to a wide range of occupations, and be used to improve employee well being and performance.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)309-328
Number of pages20
JournalJournal of Managerial Psychology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2007
Externally publishedYes


  • Employee behaviour
  • Employees
  • Human resource management

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology
  • Applied Psychology
  • Management Science and Operations Research
  • Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management


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