The influence of the environment on motivations to participate in adventure tourism: The case of the Tsitsikamma

J. K. Giddy, N. L. Webb

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

39 Citations (Scopus)


Adventure tourism (AT) is currently one of the fastest growing sub-sectors of the tourism industry. Most of the research on AT motivations tends to focus on the risk/thrill element, while the role of the environment is rarely discussed. This gap has implications not only for tourism studies but for geographic research as well. Against the above background, the purpose of this paper is to examine the role of the environment as a motivation for participation in five different nature-based AT activities in the Tsitsikamma area, Eastern Cape, South Africa. The examination of the role of the environment is made through a push and pull factor approach to motivations exhibited by commercial AT participants. The results show that, although the environment is not always the most important motivation factor, it does still play a fundamental role in nature-based AT motivations among participants, particularly in the context of certain activities. The different results associated with the five activities investigated also highlight the fact that AT motivations should not be generalised.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)351-366
Number of pages16
JournalSouthern African Geographical Journal
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 3 May 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • Adventure tourism
  • Human-environment interaction
  • Nature-based tourism
  • South Africa
  • Tourism motivations
  • Tsitsikamma

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • General Earth and Planetary Sciences


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