Synthesis of molecularly imprinted polymers for extraction of fluoroquinolones in environmental, food and biological samples

Lawrence Mzukisi Madikizela, Philiswa Nosizo Nomngongo, Vusumzi Emmanuel Pakade

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

22 Citations (Scopus)


In recent years, fluoroquinolones have been found present in important water resources and food sources which compromises the food quality and availability, thereby, causing risks to the consumer. Despite the recent advancement in the development of analytical instrumentation for routine monitoring of fluoroquinolones in water, food, and biological samples, sample pre-treatment is still a major bottleneck of the analytical methods. Therefore, fast, selective, sensitive, and cost-effective sample preparation methods prior to instrumental analysis for fluoroquinolones residues in environmental, food and biological samples are increasingly important. Solid-phase extraction using different adsorbents is one of the most widely used pre-concentration/clean-up techniques for analysis of fluoroquinolones. Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) serve as excellent effective adsorbent materials for selective extraction, separation, clean-up and preconcentration of various pollutants in different complex matrices. Therefore, synthesis of MIPs remains crucial for their applications in sample preparation as this offers much-needed selectivity in the extraction of compounds in complex samples. In this study, the progress made in the synthesis of MIPs for fluoroquinolones and their applications in water, food and biological samples were reviewed. The present review discusses the selection of all the elements of molecular imprinting for fluoroquinolones, polymerization processes and molecular recognition mechanisms. In conclusion, the related challenges and gaps are given to offer ideas for future research focussing on MIPs for fluoroquinolones.

Original languageEnglish
Article number114447
JournalJournal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Publication statusPublished - 20 Jan 2022


  • Extraction
  • Fluoroquinolones
  • Molecularly imprinted polymers
  • Selectivity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Pharmaceutical Science
  • Drug Discovery
  • Spectroscopy
  • Clinical Biochemistry


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