Synthesis and Characterization of Palladium/Silver Modified Reduced Graphene Oxide–Nanocomposite Platform for Electrochemical Sensors

Zandile Leve, Natasha Ross, Keagan Pokpas, Emanuela Carleschi, Bryan P. Doyle, Nelia Abraham Sanga, Kefilwe Vanessa Mokwebo, Emmanuel Iwuoha

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Metal nanoparticles incorporated into carbon nanostructures have tremendous applications in the field of nanosensors and other technologies. Herein, a nanohybrid of reduced graphene oxide modified with silver and/or palladium nanoparticles (Ag/Pd/rGO) was prepared by impregnation of Pd and Ag into the rGO platform and deposited on a glass carbon electrode. Palladium and silver nanoparticles improve the stability and durability of the sensor platform by preventing the agglomeration of graphene oxide sheets and providing chemical stability against environmental factors. This ensures long-term reliability and repeatability of the sensor performance. The morphologies and microstructures of the as-prepared nanohybrid were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, UV–visible and infrared spectroscopy. The average crystallite size of PdAgNPs was found to be between 12 and 15 nm and demonstrated good dispersion across reduced graphene oxide sheets with high-loading capacities. Thorough investigation of the electrochemical properties of the nanomaterial surfaces through cyclic voltammetry (CV) experiments, revealed distinct redox peaks for Ag+/Ag0 and Pd2+/Pd0 processes and demonstrated the excellent electrochemical properties of the prepared nanocomposites. The rGO-PdAgNPs-GCE had a diffusion coefficient value of 1.14×10−14 cm2 s−1 which is acceptable for electrochemical sensors as it is indicative of a fast response time and enhanced sensitivity to changes in gas concentration. The results obtained through thorough characterizations contributes to the novelty of the research by offering a deeper understanding of the material properties and the potential of the nanohybrid material for a broad application scope.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere202400606
Issue number17
Publication statusPublished - 3 May 2024


  • and sensor
  • electrochemistry
  • palladium nanoparticles
  • reduced graphene oxide
  • silver nanoparticles

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry


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