Synergistic effect of ZnO/Ag2O@g-C3N4 based nanocomposites embedded in carrageenan matrix for dye degradation in water

Feziwe B. Mamba, Bhekani S. Mbuli, James Ramontja

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This research achieved success by synthesizing innovative nanocomposite composed of zinc oxide (ZnO), graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) and silver oxide (Ag2O) nanomaterials incorporated into a carrageenan matrix, thus creating an environmentally friendly and stable support structure. The synthesis process involved hydrothermal and chemical precipitation methods to create photocatalytic g-C3N4, ZnO, and Ag2O nanocomposites. The success is evident through the characterization results, which unveiled distinctive peaks corresponding to Zn–O (590-404 cm−1) and Ag–O (2072 cm−1) stretching in the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses, conclusively confirming the successful synthesis of g-C3N4, ZnO, Ag2O, and their respective nanocomposites. Further validation through a scanning electron microscope coupled with an energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDX) and elemental mapping affirmed the presence of Zn, O, Ag, C, and N. Additionally, transmission electron microscope (TEM) imaging unveiled the nanosheet morphology of g-C3N4, the nanorod structure of ZnO, and the spherical form of Ag2O nanomaterials. ZnO and Ag2O nanomaterials demonstrated a consistent 10–20 nm size range. To underscore their ability to harness visible light, the nanomaterials were excited at 380 nm, emitting visible light emission within the 400–450 nm range. The synthesized nanocomposites showcased outstanding adsorption and photocatalytic properties, achieving efficiency ranging from 80 % to 98 %, attributed to the synergistic interactions between the various components. These findings culminate in a confirmation of the research's success, validating the exceptional potential of these nanocomposites for various applications.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere31109
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 15 Jun 2024


  • Carrageenan
  • Graphitic carbon nitride
  • Nanocomposite
  • Nanomaterial
  • Photocatalysis
  • Visible light

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Multidisciplinary


Dive into the research topics of 'Synergistic effect of ZnO/Ag2O@g-C3N4 based nanocomposites embedded in carrageenan matrix for dye degradation in water'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this