Sustainable Dry Machining of Stainless Steel with Microwave-Treated Tungsten Carbide Cutting Tools

Itemogeng Bernatt Babe, Kapil Gupta, Sujeet Kumar Chaubey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


This paper presents a research investigation conducted on the turning of stainless steel 316 material under a dry environment using microwave-treated cutting tool inserts. Plain tungsten carbide WC tool inserts were exposed to microwave treatment for enhancement of their performance characteristics. It was found that a 20-min microwave treatment resulted in the best tool hardness and metallurgical characteristics. These tool inserts have been used to machine SS 316 material following the Taguchi L9 design of experimental techniques. A total of eighteen experiments have been conducted by varying three main machining parameters, i.e., cutting speed, feed rate, and depth of cut, at three levels per parameter. It has been found that tool flank wear increased with all three parameters and surface roughness decreased. At the longest dept of cut, surface roughness increased. An abrasion wear mechanism was found on the tool flank face at a high machining speed and adhesion at low speed. Chips with a helical shape and low serrations have been investigated. Turning SS 316 at optimum machining parameters of 170 m/min cutting speed, 0.2 mm/rev feed rate, and 1 mm depth of cut, as obtained by the multiperformance optimization technique grey relational analysis, resulted in the best values of all machinability indicators: 242.21 µm tool flank wear, 3.81 µm mean roughness depth, and 34,000 mm3/min material removal rate, at a single parameter setting. In terms of research achievements, the percentage reduction in surface roughness is approximately 30% and represents an almost ten-fold improvement in the material removal rate. The combination of machining parameters of 70 m/min cutting speed, 0.1 mm/rev feed rate, and 0.5 mm depth of cut is optimum for the lowest value of tool flank wear when considered for single parameter optimization.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1148
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2023


  • dry machining
  • machinability
  • microwave
  • stainless-steel
  • surface roughness
  • sustainability
  • tool wear

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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