Subspace Pseudointensity Vectors Approach for DoA Estimation Using Spherical Antenna Array in the Presence of Unknown Mutual Coupling

Oluwole John Famoriji, Thokozani Shongwe

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


Featured Application: To obtain an antenna array with isotropic radiation, a spherical antenna array (SAA) is the correct array configuration. The knowledge of the direction-of-arrival (DoA) of an incoming signal by the receiving antenna is used to localize the locations of analogous sources. It improves the adaptive beamforming of the receiving radiation pattern to enhance system sensitivity towards the required signal directions and reduce unwanted interferences. Therefore, DoA estimation using SAA is an important task and basic challenge in signal processing, such as source identification and separation, spatial filtering etc. It has industrial applications in spacecraft, military surveillance, astronomy, radar, and vehicular technology. Spherical antenna array (SAA) exhibits the ability to receive electromagnetic (EM) waves with the same signal strength, regardless of the direction-of-arrival (DoA), angle-of-arrival, and polarization. Hence, estimating the DoA of EM signals that impinge on SAA in the presence of mutual coupling requires research consideration. In this paper, a subspace pseudointensity vectors technique is proposed for DoA estimation using SAA with unknown mutual coupling. DoA estimation using an intensity vector technique is appealing due to its computational efficiency, particularly for SAAs. Two intensity vector-based techniques that operate with spherical harmonic decomposition (SHD) of an EM wave obtained from SAA are presented. The first technique employed pseudointensity vectors (PV) and operates quite well under EM conditions when one source is in operation each time, while the second technique employed subspace pseudointensity vectors (SPV) and operates under EM conditions when multi-sources and multiple reflection cause more challenging problems. The degree of correctness in the estimation of the DoA via the PVs and SPVs is measured using baseline methods in the literature via simulations, adding noise to stationary, single-source and multi-source methods. In addition, incorporating mutual coupling effects, data from experiments, which are the generally acceptable ground truth when examining any procedure, are further used to illustrate the robustness and efficiency of the proposed techniques. The results are sufficiently inspiring for the practical deployment of the proposed techniques.

Original languageEnglish
Article number10099
JournalApplied Sciences (Switzerland)
Issue number19
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2022


  • SAA
  • direction-of-arrival
  • measured data
  • multi-source
  • mutual coupling
  • pseudointensity vector
  • subspace pseudointensity vector

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science
  • Instrumentation
  • General Engineering
  • Process Chemistry and Technology
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes


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