Structural Modeling on the Determinants of Effectiveness of SOPs Containing COVID-19 in Mass Gatherings

Abdul Basit, Miklas Scholz, Abdul Aziz Khan Niazi, Tehmina Fiaz Qazi, Muhammad Zeeshan Shaukat, Zia Ur Rehman Rao, Asif Mahmood

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


The study is aimed to analyze the determinants of the effectiveness of SOPs in mass gatherings for containing COVID-19. The overall design of the study involves a literature review, data collection by field survey, structural modeling, and analysis. The study is built on the experts' opinion of a focus group (representing people who recently participated in and are responsible for mass gatherings). The study uses the discussion of the literature review to identify the determinants, interpretive structural modeling (ISM) for developing and analyzing a structural model, and Matrice d'Impacts Croises Multiplication Appliquée a un Classement (MICMAC) for corroboration of results of the ISM/classification of determinants. From the literature review, a list of determinants is generated and verified by a panel of experts. The results of the ISM revealed that the determinants “legal environment of the country,” “practicability of SOPs,” “perceived benefit of adapting SOPs,” and “possibilities of avoiding gathering” occupied the top of the model, therefore, they are less critical determinants, whereas “nature of gathering” occupied the bottom of the model, and is thus the most critical determinant. The remaining determinants form the middle of the model, and are therefore moderately severe. The results of MICMAC show that the determinant “perceived benefit of adapting SOPs” is dependent, “nature of gathering” is independent, and all others are linked. The results of MICMAC implicitly substantiate the findings of the ISM. The overall results of the study show that “nature of gathering” is the key determinant. This research does not require a priori theory since it is a theory-building study that uses an inductive approach. It is based on real data and it is useful for local authorities, organizers, participants (attendees/visitors) of mass gatherings, health officials/regulators, researchers, and the community at large. This study has fundamental importance for planning and preparing for such events while ensuring the minimum risk of COVID-19 transmission.

Original languageEnglish
Article number755221
JournalFrontiers in Psychology
Publication statusPublished - 27 Oct 2021


  • COVID-19
  • ISM
  • SOPs
  • determinants
  • mass gathering

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Psychology


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