Standardized methodology for performance evaluation in using polyaniline-based adsorbents to remove aqueous contaminants

Akbar Samadi, Lingxue Kong, Wenshan Guo, Mika Sillanpää, Inci Boztepe, Chengwen Song, Qingyi Zeng, Shuaifei Zhao

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


In literature, mistakes and inconsistencies in evaluation of the adsorption equilibrium, kinetics, and thermodynamics in pollutants removal often exist. Here, we review these mistakes and propose a standardized methodology, with a focus on polyaniline (PANI)-based adsorbents to correctly determine the adsorption equilibrium data, kinetic rates, equilibrium time, and adsorption capacity. Removal of aqueous pollutants by PANI-based adsorbents through well-designed experiments predominantly involves monolayer chemisorption. The nature of adsorption, whether heterogeneous or homogeneous, is contingent upon the morphological characteristics and distribution of functional groups of the adsorbents. The literature reflects a multitude of complexities in the implementation of adsorption experiments and the subsequent analysis of results. Researchers have attempted to address these complexities, yet variations in findings remain due to the diverse experimental conditions applied. This study critically examines existing methodologies and their conditions to develop a distinctive approach for rational experimental design, meticulous sampling, and accurate calculations. Controversial descriptions regarding adsorption equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamics are scrutinized and the scientifically reasonable methodologies are presented. Finally, the main steps in determining the adsorption mechanisms via physiochemical studies and adsorption experiments are recommended. This study contributes insightful perspectives to the field by offering a more robust and standardized methodology to conduct adsorption experiments and interpret adsorption results, thereby enhancing the reliability and comparability of findings in adsorption.

Original languageEnglish
Article number112650
JournalJournal of Environmental Chemical Engineering
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2024
Externally publishedYes


  • Adsorption
  • Adsorption kinetics
  • Adsorption thermodynamics
  • Pollutant removal
  • Polyaniline adsorbent

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemical Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Pollution
  • Process Chemistry and Technology


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