Sonoelectrochemical oxidation of sulfamethoxazole in simulated and actual wastewater on a piezo-polarizable FTO/BaZrxTi(1−x)O3 electrode: reaction kinetics, mechanism and reaction pathway studies

Babatope O. Ojo, Omotayo A. Arotiba, Nonhlangabezo Mabuba

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Abstract

The sonoelectrochemical (SEC) oxidation of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) in simulated and actual wastewater on FTO/BaZr(0.1)Ti(0.9)O3, FTO/BaZr(0.05)Ti(0.95)O3 and FTO/BaTiO3 electrodes is hereby presented. Electrodes from piezo-polarizable BaZr(0.1)Ti(0.9)O3, BaZr(0.05)Ti(0.95)O3, and BaTiO3 materials were prepared by immobilizing these materials on fluorine-doped tin dioxide (FTO) glass. Electrochemical characterization performed on the electrodes using chronoamperometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques revealed that the FTO/BaZr(0.1)Ti(0.9)O3 anode displayed the highest sonocurrent density response of 2.33 mA cm−2 and the lowest charge transfer resistance of 57 Ω. Compared to other electrodes, these responses signaled a superior mass transfer on the FTO/BaZr(0.1)Ti(0.9)O3 anode occasioned by an acoustic streaming effect. Moreover, a degradation efficiency of 86.16% (in simulated wastewater), and total organic carbon (TOC) removal efficiency of 63.16% (in simulated wastewater) and 41.47% (in actual wastewater) were obtained upon applying the FTO/BaZr(0.1)Ti(0.9)O3 electrode for SEC oxidation of SMX. The piezo-polarizable impact of the FTO/BaZr(0.1)Ti(0.9)O3 electrode was further established by the higher rate constant obtained for the FTO/BaZr(0.1)Ti(0.9)O3 electrode as compared to the other electrodes during SEC oxidation of SMX under optimum operational conditions. The piezo-potential effect displayed by the FTO/BaZr(0.1)Ti(0.9)O3 electrode can be said to have impacted the generation of reactive species, with hydroxyl radicals playing a predominant role in the degradation of SMX in the SEC system. Additionally, a positive synergistic index obtained for the electrode revealed that the piezo-polarization effect of the FTO/BaZr(0.1)Ti(0.9)O3 electrode activated during sonocatalysis combined with the electrochemical oxidation process during SEC oxidation can be advantageous for the decomposition of pharmaceuticals and other organic pollutants in water.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)30892-30905
Number of pages14
JournalRSC Advances
Volume12
Issue number48
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 28 Oct 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • General Chemical Engineering

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