Solar Panels Dirt Monitoring and Cleaning for Performance Improvement: A Systematic Review on Smart Systems

Benjamin Oluwamuyiwa Olorunfemi, Omolola A. Ogbolumani, Nnamdi Nwulu

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

20 Citations (Scopus)


The advancement in technology to manage energy generation using solar panels has proved vital for increased reliability and reduced cost. Solar panels emit no pollution while producing electricity as a renewable energy source. However, the solar panel is adversely affected by dirt, a major environmental factor affecting energy production. The intensity of light falling on the solar panel is reduced when dirt accumulates on the surface. This, in turn, lowers the output of electrical energy generated by the solar panel. Since cleansing the solar panel is essential, constant monitoring and evaluation of these processes are necessary to optimize them. This emphasizes the importance of using smart systems to monitor dirt and clean solar panels to improve their performance. The paper tries to verify the existence and the degree of research interest in this topic and seeks to evaluate the impact of smart systems to detect dirt conditions and clean solar panels compared to autonomous and manual technology. Research on smart systems for addressing dirt accumulation on solar panels was conducted taking into account efficiency, accuracy, complexity, and reliability, initial and running cost. Overall, real-time monitoring and cleaning of the solar panel improved its output power with integrated smart systems. It helps users get real-time updates of the solar panel’s condition and control actions from distant locations. A critical limitation of this research is the insufficient empirical analysis of existing smart systems, which should be thoroughly examined to allow further generalization of theoretical findings.

Original languageEnglish
Article number10920
Issue number17
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2022


  • automated cleaning
  • condition monitoring
  • device management
  • dirt accumulation and removal
  • dirt detection
  • internet of things
  • photovoltaic panel
  • real-time monitoring and cleaning
  • remote solar plant
  • solar panels dirt

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Science (miscellaneous)
  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Building and Construction
  • Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law


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