Smartphone use and work-home interference: The moderating role of social norms and employee work engagement

Daantje Derks, Desiree van Duin, Maria Tims, Arnold B. Bakker

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

291 Citations (Scopus)


Work in our modern society that is facilitated by communication technology involves connectivity, immediacy, and a blurring of boundaries between work and non-work domains. This 4-day quantitative diary study (N = 100 employees, N = 367-400 data points) aims to shed light on the relationship between daily smartphone use and daily work-home interference (WHI). Two potential moderators of this relationship are examined: (1) (strong) social norms represented by the influence of colleagues and supervisors regarding availability after work hours and (2) work engagement. Overall, the results of multilevel analyses were in line with the hypotheses. The findings suggest that supervisors should be clear about their expectations regarding smartphone use in private hours in that they should not expect employees to be always available. In addition we conclude that engaged workers can prevent work from interfering too much with their private lives, even when they use their smartphones during evening hours.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)155-177
Number of pages23
JournalJournal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2015
Externally publishedYes


  • Employee engagement
  • Smartphone use
  • Social norms
  • Work engagement
  • Work-family conflict
  • Work-home interference

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Applied Psychology
  • Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management


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