Simulating the ground freezing process: A decision support model

H. Malekzadeh, D. J. Edwards, F. C. Harris

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


This paper describes the development of a decision support computer model to aid ground freezing on construction and civil engineering projects. The methodology examined three pragmatic considerations of the ground freezing process. These are: (i) risk analysis (to determine data and information required to utilize risk models); (ii) finite element analysis for ground freezing (to obtain appropriate freeze pipe sizes and determine distances between pipes for reducing the duration of the freezing process); and (iii) linear programming (to derive optimum cost with respect to excavation length and ice-wall thickness). These pragmatic considerations were then applied to field studies in order to test model validity. In combination, the decision support model developed demonstrated novelty specifically for cost estimating and planning ground freezing works. Greater "practitioner" understanding and consequently, wider utilization of the models presented could therefore translate as cost optimization of the ground freezing process. The paper concludes with directions for future research work that aims to: (i) apply the algorithms employed to other temporary works methodologies; (ii) optimize the cost specification of ground freezing using linear programming applied to "live" financial data; and (iii) transpose the research into a user-friendly software package.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)107-121
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Construction Research
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2005
Externally publishedYes


  • Construction/civil projects
  • Financial models
  • Finite element analysis
  • Ground freezing
  • Linear programming

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Building and Construction


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