Shallow pond systems planted with Lemna minor treating azo dyes

Dina A. Yaseen, Miklas Scholz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

64 Citations (Scopus)


A higher demand on textile materials has resulted in an increase of the number of textile factories particularly in the developing world, which consequently negatively effects the environment due to their contaminated effluents. Textile effluents are highly coloured and mixed with different chemicals and pollutants. Shallow pond systems are a promising, cheap and effective technique for the treatment of contaminated wastewater. The aim of this study is to assess the performance of pond systems vegetated by Lemna minor L. (duckweed) for textile dye removal under controlled laboratory conditions. The key objectives of this study are to assess the influence of design variables on water quality parameters, the dye and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal of dyes, and the effect of dye accumulation as a function of the relative growth rate of L. minor. Findings indicate that the simulated shallow pond system (as a polishing step) is able to remove only Basic Red 46 (BR46) in low concentrations, and ponds containing L. minor significantly (p < 0.05) outperformed algae-dominated ponds and control ponds. The simple chemical structure, absence of sulpho-group and small molecular weight associated with neutral pH values enhanced the capacity of the uptake of BR46 molecules. Furthermore, the total dissolved solid concentrations were within the threshold set for discharge to the aquatic environment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)295-305
Number of pages11
JournalEcological Engineering
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sept 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • Biological treatment
  • Colorant removal
  • Colour red
  • Duckweed
  • Textile wastewater
  • Water quality assessment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Nature and Landscape Conservation
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law


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