Removal of Cd2+, Ni2+ and PO4 3− from aqueous solution by hydroxyapatite-bentonite clay-nanocellulose composite

Sanna Hokkanen, Amit Bhatnagar, Varsha Srivastava, Valtteri Suorsa, Mika Sillanpää

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

68 Citations (Scopus)


A novel hydroxyapatite-bentonite clay-nanocellulose (CHA-BENT-NCC) composite material was successfully prepared as adsorbent for the removal of Ni2+, Cd2+ and PO4 3− from aqueous solutions. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used for characterization of the adsorbent. The effect of pH, contact time, temperature, and initial adsorbate concentration were studied for optimization purpose. The adsorption behavior of the investigated ions were well described by the Freundlich adsorption model, and the maximum adsorption capacity for Ni2+, Cd2+ and PO4 3− was estimated to be 29.46 mmol/g, 10.34 mmol/g and 4.90 mmol/g, respectively. Desorption efficiency was achieved by treatment with 0.01 M HNO3 for metals and 0.10 M NaOH for PO4 3−. Five adsorption–desorption cycles were performed without significant decrease in adsorption capacities. The CHA-BENT-NCC material proved to be a very effective adsorption material for the treatment of mining water also from a copper mine in Finland.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)903-912
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Publication statusPublished - 15 Oct 2018
Externally publishedYes


  • Adsorption isotherms
  • Composite material
  • Hydroxyapatite-bentonite clay-nanocellulose (CHA-BENT-NCC)
  • Metals and phosphate removal
  • Water treatment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Structural Biology
  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Economics and Econometrics
  • General Energy


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