Recycling spent lead-acid batteries into lead halide for resource purification and multifunctional perovskite diodes

Jiong Li, Chenghao Duan, Ligang Yuan, Zidan Liu, Hepeng Zhu, Jianwei Ren, Keyou Yan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

24 Citations (Scopus)


Lead-acid batteries are a reliable and cost-effective uninterrupted power supply for cars, wheelchairs, and others. Recycling the spent lead-acid batteries has increased cost and could be a serious pollution issue after extensive use. It is important to exploit new-generation application to increase their value. In this article, we used a simple method for recycling spent lead-acid batteries for a useful lead iodide resource with a high purity of over 99% and a recycling yield of 93.1% and then fabricated multifunctional FAPbI3 perovskite diodes using recycled lead iodide (PbI2). The cost of recycled PbI2 based on lab-grade chemicals is estimated to be only 13.6% that of lab-grade PbI2, which undoubtedly greatly reduces the preparation cost of devices in the lab. The external quantum efficiencies of our perovskite diodes prepared with commercial and recycled PbI2 are 19.0 and 18.7%, respectively, which shows that the performance of the device prepared from recycled PbI2 is comparable to that of commercial lab-grade PbI2. Based on the expense of industrial-grade chemicals, the cost of recycled PbI2 is extrapolated to be 70.2% that of industrial-grade PbI2. Therefore, it can not only offer an approach to recycle hazardous solid waste but also save manufacturing cost of new-generation photoelectric devices, leading to earning additional value for lead waste.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)8309-8317
Number of pages9
JournalEnvironmental Science & Technology
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 15 Jun 2021


  • Lead halide
  • Low cost
  • Perovskite diode
  • Recycling
  • Spent lead-acid batteries

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • Environmental Chemistry


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