Recovery from work-related effort: A meta-analysis

Andrew A. Bennett, Arnold B. Bakker, James G. Field

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

268 Citations (Scopus)


This meta-analytic study examines the antecedents and outcomes of four recovery experiences: psychological detachment, relaxation, mastery, and control. Using 299 effect sizes from 54 independent samples (N = 26,592), we extend theory by integrating recovery experiences into the challenge–hindrance framework, creating a more comprehensive understanding of how both after-work recovery and work characteristics collectively relate to well-being. The results of meta-analytic path estimates indicate that challenge demands have stronger negative relationships with psychological detachment, relaxation, and control recovery experiences than hindrance demands, and job resources have positive relationships with relaxation, mastery, and control recovery experiences. Psychological detachment after work has a stronger negative relationship with fatigue than relaxation or control experiences, whereas control experiences after work have a stronger positive relationship with vigor than detachment or relaxation experiences. Additionally, a temporally driven model with recovery experiences as a partial mediator explains up to 62% more variance in outcomes (ΔR2 =.12) beyond work characteristics models, implying that both work characteristics and after-work recovery play an important role in determining employee well-being.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)262-275
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Organizational Behavior
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2018
Externally publishedYes


  • challenge–hindrance framework
  • fatigue
  • meta-analysis
  • recovery experiences
  • vigor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Applied Psychology
  • Sociology and Political Science
  • General Psychology
  • Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management


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