Recognizing Levels of Justification: To Add or to Subtract

Jennifer Lackey, Richard Fumerton

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


In this paper I explore the idea of developing something like Sosa's influential distinction between cognitio and scientia (animal knowledge and reflective knowledge) to epistemic justification. On the assumption that we should, I explore the question of whether we should do so by either (1) beginning with a really basic, intellectually undemanding kind of justification, recognizing more sophisticated intellectually rewarding justification by layering more demanding requirements on that basic sort, or (2) beginning with an ideal sort of justification and recognizing less demanding sorts of justification by stripping away conditions from that ideal justification.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)385-394
Number of pages10
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • animal and reflective knowledge
  • Justification
  • Sosa

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • History and Philosophy of Science


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