Reactivities of modified and unmodified exfoliated graphite electrodes in selected redox systems

T. Ndlovu, O. A. Arotiba, S. Sampath, R. W. Krause, B. B. Mamba

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Citations (Scopus)


The electrochemical profiles of exfoliated graphite electrodes (EG) and glassy carbon electrodes (GCE) were recorded using cyclic voltammetry and square wave voltammetry in the presence of various supporting electrolytes and [Fe(CN)6]3-/4-, [Ru(NH3)6]2+/3+,ferrocene redox probes. In the supporting electrolytes (KCl, H2SO4, NaOH, tetrabutylammoniumtetraflouroborate, phosphate buffers), the potential windows of EG were found in some cases to be about 200 mV larger than that of GCE. The electroactive surface area of EG was estimated to be 19.5 % larger than the GCE which resulted in higher peak currents on the EG electrode. Furthermore, EG was modified with various nanomaterials such as poly (propylene imine) dendrimer, gold nanoparticles, and dendrimer-gold nanoparticles composite. The morphologies of the modified electrodes were studied using scanning electron microscopy and their electrochemical reactivities in the three redox probes were investigated. The current and the reversibility of redox probes were enhanced with the presence of modifiers in different degrees with dendrimer and gold nanoparticles having a favorable edge.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)9441-9453
Number of pages13
JournalInternational Journal of Electrochemical Science
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 2012


  • Dendrimer
  • Electrode modification
  • Exfoliated graphite electrode
  • Glassy carbon electrode
  • Gold nanoparticles
  • Redox probe

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrochemistry


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