Profiling of phytosterols, tocopherols and tocotrienols in selected seed oils from botswana by GC-MS and HPLC

Y. C. Mitei, J. C. Ngila, S. O. Yeboah, L. Wessjohann, J. Schmidt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

44 Citations (Scopus)


The phytosterol, tocopherol, and tocotrienol profiles for mkukubuyo, Sterculia africana, manketti, Ricinodendron rautanenni, mokolwane, Hyphaene petersiana, morama, Tylosema esculentum, and moretologa-kgomo, Ximenia caffra, seed oils from Botswana have been determined. Normal-phase HPLC analysis of the unsaponifiable matter showed that among the selected oils, the most abundant tocopherol and tocotrienol were γ-tocopherol (2232.99 μg/g) and γ-tocotrienol (246.19 μg/g), detected in manketti and mkukubuyo, respectively. Mokolwane oil, however, contained the largest total tocotrienol (258.47 μg/g). Total tocol contents found in manketti, mokolwane, mkukubuyo, morama, and moretologa-kgomo oils were 2238.60, 262.40, 246.20, 199.10, and 128.0 μg/g, respectively. GC-MS determination of the relative percentage composition of phytosterols showed 4-desmethylsterols as the most abundant phytosterols in the oils, by occurring up to 90% in moretologa-kgomo, mkukubuyo, and manketti seed oils, with β-sitosterol being the most abundant. Mokolwane seed oil contained the largest percentage composition of 4,4-dimethylsterols (45.93%). Besides 4-desmethylsterols (75%), morama oil also contained significant amounts of 4,4-dimethylsterols and 4-monomethylsterols (15.72% total). GC-MS determination of the absolute amounts of 4-desmethylsterols, after SPE fractionation of the unsaponifiable matter, confirmed that β-sitosterol was the most abundant phytosterol in the test seed oils, with manketti seed oil being the richest source (1326.74 μg/g). The analysis showed total 4-desmethylsterols content as 1617.41, 1291.88, 861.47, 149.15, and 109.11 μg/g for manketti, mokolwane, mkukubuyo, morama, and moretologa-kgomo seed oils, respectively.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)617-625
Number of pages9
JournalJAOCS, Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2009
Externally publishedYes


  • 4,4-Dimethylsterols
  • 4-Desmethylsterols
  • 4-Monomethylsterols
  • GC-MS
  • HPLC
  • Manketti
  • Mkukubuyo
  • Mokolwane
  • Morama
  • Moretologa-kgomo
  • Phytosterol
  • Tocopherol and tocotrienol profiles

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemical Engineering
  • Organic Chemistry


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