Process optimization of freeze desalination of brine using HybridICETM pilot plant

Caliphs M. Zvinowanda, Nomvuselelo N. Zikalala, Tabani Mtombeni, Jannie P. Maree, Wynand J. Louw, Frederick Oosthuizen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)


Abstract: Freeze desalination of synthetic brines prepared from sodium chloride was investigated. Brine solutions of levels between 2.3% to 10% sodium chloride were used as feed to the plant operated in a batch and continuous mode. The effects of pump, gear motor speed, and differential temperatures on ice formation and purity were investigated. The HybridICE process produced ice of quality levels between 80–96% purity. It was observed that the pump speed was directly proportional to the effluent flow rate coming out of the heat exchangers. Generally, it was observed that the quality of product ice was higher at low to medium flow rates of feed. The gear motor speed variation was inversely proportional to effluent flow rate from the heat exchangers. The HybridICE was found to be a viable desalination technology in terms of quality of water produced, energy consumption, and its easiness to be incorporated into existing refrigeration systems.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6315-6324
Number of pages10
JournalDesalination and Water Treatment
Issue number34-36
Publication statusPublished - 15 Oct 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • Brine
  • Desalination
  • Heat exchanger
  • Ice slurry
  • Impurity
  • R404A

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Water Science and Technology
  • Ocean Engineering
  • Pollution


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