Prevalence of ESKAPE pathogens in the environment: Antibiotic resistance status, community-acquired infection and risk to human health

Julia Denissen, Brandon Reyneke, Monique Waso-Reyneke, Benjamin Havenga, Tobias Barnard, Sehaam Khan, Wesaal Khan

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

81 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The ESKAPE (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter spp.) pathogens are characterised by increased levels of resistance towards multiple classes of first line and last-resort antibiotics. Although these pathogens are frequently isolated from clinical environments and are implicated in a variety of life-threatening, hospital-associated infections; antibiotic resistant ESKAPE strains have been isolated from environmental reservoirs such as surface water, wastewater, food, and soil. Literature on the persistence and subsequent health risks posed by the ESKAPE isolates in extra-hospital settings is however, limited and the current review aims to elucidate the primary reservoirs of these pathogens in the environment, their antibiotic resistance profiles, and the link to community-acquired infections. Additionally, information on the current state of research regarding health-risk assessments linked to exposure of the ESKAPE pathogens in the natural environment, is outlined.

Original languageEnglish
Article number114006
JournalInternational Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Volume244
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2022

Keywords

  • Antibiotic resistance
  • Community-acquired infection
  • ESKAPE pathogens
  • Environment
  • Risk assessment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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