Post occupancy evaluation of school refurbishment projects: Multiple case study in the UK

Hamad Ahmed, David J. Edwards, Joseph H.K. Lai, Chris Roberts, Caleb Debrah, De Graft Owusu-Manu, Wellington Didibhuku Thwala

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

34 Citations (Scopus)


Buildings inevitably deteriorate with time. Schools buildings are no exception and require refurbishment at times. Despite the UK Government announcing the £1 billion funding for rebuilding 50 schools over 10 years starting 2010–2021, it is common practice for builders and designers to, upon completion of a building project, move on to the next development without considering how the completed building performs. This research undertakes a post occupancy evaluation (POE) of three schools in the West Midlands, UK with specific focus on building services, viz., heating, lighting, and air conditioning and ventilation. The research adopted a mixed philosophical approach of interpretivism and post-positivism to conduct inductive reasoning. A questionnaire that collected both quantitative and qualitative primary data was distributed to the end-users of the schools. Data was analysed using the Cronbach’s alpha, one sample t-test and Kruskal–Wallis test to identify any differences between the questionnaire responses. Findings revealed that building users demanded greater control of the internal environment thus contradicting the current trend for automated ‘intelligent systems’ approaches. This research represents the first work to consider the contractor’s perspective towards developing a better understanding of client satisfaction with the school buildings. Moreover, the POE result represents a notable pragmatic advancement to knowledge that will influence the contractor’s knowledge and understanding of client satisfaction, and where to improve upon these.

Original languageEnglish
Article number169
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Building services
  • Construction
  • POE
  • Refurbishment
  • Schools
  • Soft landings

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Architecture
  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Building and Construction


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