Pomegranate fruit quality and seed drying method: Effect on the chemical composition and bioactivities of the extracted oil

Olaniyi Amos Fawole, Tafadzwa Kaseke, Umezuruike Linus Opara

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


The study presents a comparative investigation of the composition and bioactivity of oil extracted from pomegranate seeds of sun-burned fruit (SB) and healthy fruit (HF) for the value-adding potential of pomegranate fruit waste. Seeds from SB and HF were independently freeze dried, sun dried, and oven dried before ultrasound-assisted oil extraction using petroleum ether. The extracted oil was analysed for yield, refractive index, ρ-anisidine value, total phenolic content (TPC), DPPH radical scavenging ability, antimicrobial activity, tyrosinase enzyme inhibition ability, and fatty acid composition. The results showed that oven dried seeds, regardless of fruit quality, yielded the highest oil (20.85–24.70%, dry weight). Regardless of the seed drying method, oil from the seeds of SB exhibited the highest TPC (1.48–2.84 mgGAE/g PSO) than oil from the seeds of HF. The oil from oven dried and freeze dried seeds of SB were more effective in scavenging the DPPH radicals with IC50 values of 34.77 and 39.97 µg/mL, respectively. All the oil samples showed good ability to inhibit tyrosinase enzyme regardless of fruit quality and seed drying method, with monophenolase and diphenolase IC50 ranging between 0.31 and 0.49 mg/mL and 0.64 and 2.43 mg/mL, respectively. Irrespective of the drying method, oil extracted from HF seeds exhibited greater antimicrobial potency against the tested bacteria. The fatty acid composition of the oil samples was neither affected by fruit quality and seed drying method. Generally, all oil samples exhibited high levels of punicic acid (81.21–82.68%) and low omega 6 to omega 3 ratios (0.19–0.37%), suggesting that the oil samples were healthy. Principal component analysis (PCA) established that freeze dried seeds of SB is an excellent source of oil with higher TPC, punicic acid, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and unsaturated fatty acid/saturated fatty acid ratio. It can be concluded that the seed from SB is a good raw material for oil that can be utilised in cosmetic products formulation.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2022


  • Antiradical activity
  • Fatty acid composition
  • Fruit
  • Pomegranate seed oil
  • Total phenolic content
  • Tyrosinase inhibition activity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • Chemical Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Process Chemistry and Technology


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