Polyphenols of Edible Macroalgae: Estimation of In Vitro Bio-Accessibility and Cytotoxicity, Quantification by LC-MS/MS and Potential Utilization as an Antimicrobial and Functional Food Ingredient

Yogesh Kumar, Ayon Tarafdar, Deepak Kumar, Chakkaravarthi Saravanan, Prarabdh C. Badgujar, Aparna Pharande, Sunil Pareek, Olaniyi Amos Fawole

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Macroalgae are a rich source of polyphenols, and their ingestion promotes various health benefits. However, information on factors contributing to health benefits such as antioxidants, antimicrobial properties, bioaccessibility, and cytotoxicity is less explored and often unavailable. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the above-mentioned parameters for the brown and green macroalgae Sargassum wightii and Ulva rigida, respectively, collected from the southeast coast of India. S. wightii exhibited higher antioxidant activity and moderate antimicrobial activity against major food pathogens in an agar well diffusion assay and in the broth microdilution method (MIC50 being <0.5 mg/mL for all microorganisms tested). Both macroalgae extracts exhibited significantly high bioaccessibility of polyphenols. To evaluate the safety of the extracts, in vitro cytotoxicity by a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was carried out on the primary cells: mouse splenic lymphocytes. An almost complete decline in the cell viability was seen at considerably high concentration (50 mg/mL), expressing the reasonably high safety of the extracts. The extracts of both macroalgae were quantified for polyphenols, wherein fucoxanthin (9.27 ± 2.28 mg/kg DW) and phloroglucinol (17.96 ± 2.80 mg/kg DW) were found to be greater in the S. wightii apart from other phenolics, like gallic acid, quercetin, vanillin, and ferulic acid. The results signify the tremendous scope for the value addition of S. wightii through extraction and purification of polyphenols for its potential exploitation in functional foods and nutraceuticals or as an antimicrobial ingredient in active or smart packaging.

Original languageEnglish
Article number993
JournalAntioxidants
Volume11
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 2022

Keywords

  • MTT assay
  • chlorophyll content
  • fucoxanthin
  • in vitro digestibility
  • macroalgae
  • phloroglucinol

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Physiology
  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Cell Biology

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