Physical Layer Security Analysis of Multi-Hop Hybrid RF/FSO System in Presence of Multiple Eavesdroppers

Dipti R. Pattanayak, Vivek K. Dwivedi, Vikram Karwal, Pankaj K. Yadav, G. Singh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


In this paper, the physical layer security (PLS) analysis for a decode-and-forward (DF) protocol based multi-hop hybrid radio frequency (RF)/ free space optics (FSO) is presented. Herein, two different scenarios are considered for detecting the secured information at the destination. In the first scenario, at each hop, the received signals with higher secrecy capacity are selected. However, in the second scenario, the RF and FSO signals are simply decoded and forwarded to the next hop and selection is done at the last hop only. Each node in the system is connected to its subsequent node through parallel RF and FSO links. The FSO links and RF links are characterized by Málaga (M) and Nakagami-m composite distributions respectively. For both scenarios, the secrecy outage probability (SOP), strictly positive secrecy capacity (SPSC), intercept probability (IP), and effective secrecy throughput (EST) are obtained as performance metrics. These performance metrics are obtained by considering pointing error, different optical signal detection methods, turbulence effect, and the RF link fading parameter (m). Using the results, the security and reliability trade-off analysis is discussed for two scenarios. In addition, the asymptotic results are also obtained to study the system in depth. Further, the secrecy diversity order (SDO) and secrecy coding gain (SCG) are obtained to analyse the system in depth. Finally, Monte-Carlo Simulation is performed to verify the obtained results. The results manifest that the scenario with selection at each hop provides better secrecy performance than the scenario with selection at the last hop.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7364312
JournalIEEE Photonics Journal
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2022


  • Physical layer security
  • Secrecy outage probability
  • and effective secrecy throughput
  • and secrecy coding gain
  • intercept probability
  • multi-hop hybrid radio frequency/free space optics
  • secrecy diversity order
  • strictly positive secrecy capacity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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