Photobiomodulation of avian embryos by red laser

A. El-Hussein, M. R. Hamblin, A. Saad, M. A. Harith

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


The current research focuses on the effect of variable doses of red laser on the chick embryonic development. He-Ne laser of 632-nm wavelength was used as an irradiation source in the first 48 h post-laying of chicken eggs. We have used five different doses: 2, 1, 0.3, 0.2, and 0.1 mJ/cm2 that needed a time range for about 400–20 s. Those irradiated embryos were left for additional 11 days for incubation in normal conditions, where they are blindly studied after the 11th day. Light microscopy was used in this study to investigate the histological and pathological features of the different experimental groups compared to the control one. However, electron microcopy was utilized to trace the apoptotic distribution in the developmental embryos. Minor abnormalities that are dependent on the laser dose have been shown in the irradiated embryos when compared to the sham group, where the highest laser dose showed about 12% embryonic development anomalies when related to the other irradiated groups. Irradiated embryos were found to express more INF-γ and IL-2 as circulating cytokines relative to the unexposed group, where the levels of IL-2 were highly significantly increased by all laser doses (0.3 mJ/cm2 light dose recipient group showed significant increase only when compared to the control group). IFN-γ levels were significantly increased as well by light doses above 0.2 mJ/cm2. This IFN-γ increase trend seemed to be laser dose-dependent. Simultaneously, these combined results propose the ability of high laser doses in inducing incurable changes in the embryonic development and consequently such alterations can have potential therapeutic applications through what is known as photobiomodulation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1177-1189
Number of pages13
JournalLasers in Medical Science
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Apoptosis
  • Chicken eggs
  • Cytokines
  • Photobiomodulation
  • Red laser

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Dermatology


Dive into the research topics of 'Photobiomodulation of avian embryos by red laser'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this