Photobiomodulation at 660 nm Stimulates In Vitro Diabetic Wound Healing via the Ras/MAPK Pathway

Patricia Kasowanjete, Heidi Abrahamse, Nicolette N. Houreld

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) are open chronic wounds that affect diabetic patients due to hyperglycaemia. DFUs are known for their poor response to treatment and frequently require amputation, which may result in premature death. The present study evaluated the effect of photobiomodulation (PBM) at 660 nm on wound healing via activation of Ras/MAPK signalling in diabetic wounded cells in vitro. This study used four human skin fibroblast cell (WS1) models, namely normal (N), wounded (W), diabetic (D), and diabetic wounded (DW). Cells were irradiated at 660 nm with 5 J/cm2. Non-irradiated cells (0 J/cm2) served as controls. Cells were incubated for 24 and 48 h post-irradiation, and the effect of PBM on cellular morphology and migration rate, viability, and proliferation was assessed. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), its phosphorylated (activated) receptor FGFR, and phosphorylated target proteins (Ras, MEK1/2 and MAPK) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blotting; nuclear translocation of p-MAPK was determined by immunofluorescence. PBM resulted in an increase in bFGF and a subsequent increase in FGFR activation. There was also an increase in downstream proteins, p-Ras, p-MEK1/2 and p-MAPK. PBM at 660 nm led to increased viability, proliferation, and migration as a result of increased bFGF and subsequent activation of the Ras/MAPK signalling pathway. Therefore, this study can conclude that PBM at 660 nm stimulates in vitro diabetic wound healing via the bFGF-activated Ras/MAPK pathway.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1080
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2023


  • MAPK
  • Ras
  • diabetes
  • photobiomodulation
  • signal transduction
  • wound healing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Biochemistry,Genetics and Molecular Biology


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