Performance evaluation of three charcoal stoves

Daniel Masekameni, Tafadzwa Makonese, Harold J. Annegarn

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Globally, introduction of alternative basic energy has proven to reduce the burden of household air pollution. In South Africa, charcoal present a viable energy resource in the peri urban areas. However, burning of charcoal in inefficient stoves leads to excessive release of harmful pollutants. Few studies have been conducted to investigate the burning of charcoal more cleanly and efficiently, hence the development of this study. This study set out to evaluate emissions and thermal performance of three improved charcoal stoves (Zambian, Kenyan Jiko and Madagascar charcoal stoves) that might be applicable for the South African market. In order to replicate real world use, a culturally appropriate burn sequence was developed prior to stove evaluation. The hood method was used to collect gaseous and particulate emissions. Stoves were rated in terms of the IWA rating matrix, and CSI metrics, and for CO emissions in terms of the South African standard for indoor combustion (SANS 1906: 2009). Results presented indicated the COEF in the range of 4.3-5.4 g/MJ, PMEF 5.2-7.5 mg/MJ while firepower was found to be between 3.1-7.3 kW. All three stoves rated as IWA Tier 4. The CO/CO2 ratios were found to be in the range of 7.5-9.6%, indicating that these stoves will not be suitable for indoor use in terms of the South African National Standard. Using the CSI rating method, the Zambian charcoal stove failed in terms of the firepower, while the Kenyan Jiko and Madagascar charcoal stoves passed, with average firepower between 3 and 5 kW.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of the 24th Conference on the Domestic Use of Energy, DUE 2016
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
ISBN (Electronic)9780994675903
Publication statusPublished - 6 May 2016
Event24th Conference on the Domestic Use of Energy, DUE 2016 - Cape Town, South Africa
Duration: 30 Mar 201631 Mar 2016

Publication series

NameProceedings of the 24th Conference on the Domestic Use of Energy, DUE 2016


Conference24th Conference on the Domestic Use of Energy, DUE 2016
Country/TerritorySouth Africa
CityCape Town


  • Charcoal stoves
  • GACC
  • alternative basic energy
  • culturally appropriate burn sequence
  • improved stoves
  • stove testing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Social Sciences (miscellaneous)


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