Performance evaluation of representative Wildfowl & Wetlands Trust constructed wetlands treating sewage

Yu Dong, Miklas Scholz, Sally Mackenzie

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Data collected from five Wildfowl & Wetlands Trust constructed wetland systems offering a range of styles and inflow water types between 2005 and 2009 were examined and compared to identify long-term trends in nutrient removal. Ammonia-nitrogen concentrations were reduced between 31.9 and 96.8%. In contrast, the concentrations of nitrate-nitrogen and total oxidised nitrogen in the effluent exceeded the influent in many of the systems. Reduction in ortho-phosphate-phosphorus and total phosphorous were between -10.5 and 87.6%, and between 6.9 and 92.5%, respectively. Removal efficiencies of biochemical oxygen demand were between 0.0 and 87.3%, and reductions of total suspended solids ranged from -249.3 to 57.6%. Ammonia-nitrogen reduction was effective during summer. Long-term nitrogen removal has been efficient and consistent. However, phosphorous reduction was only sufficient during the early stages of operation, and generally declined as the wetland aged.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)317-327
Number of pages11
JournalWater and Environment Journal
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • Ammonia-nitrogen
  • Biochemical oxygen demand
  • Hydraulic loading rate
  • Nitrate-nitrogen
  • Ortho-phosphate-phosphorus
  • Suspended solids
  • Wetland ageing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Water Science and Technology
  • Pollution
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law


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