Oxygen vacancy induced phase formation and room temperature ferromagnetism in undoped and Co-doped TiO2 thin films

P. Mohanty, N. C. Mishra, R. J. Choudhary, A. Banerjee, T. Shripathi, N. P. Lalla, S. Annapoorni, Rath Chandana Rath

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47 Citations (Scopus)


TiO2 and Co-doped TiO2 (CTO) thin films deposited at various oxygen partial pressures by pulsed laser deposition exhibit room temperature ferromagnetism (RTFM) independent of their phase. Films deposited at 0.1mTorr oxygen partial pressure show a complete rutile phase confirmed from glancing angle x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. At the highest oxygen partial pressure, i.e. 300mTorr, although the TiO2 film shows a complete anatase phase, a small peak corresponding to the rutile phase along with the anatase phase is identified in the case of CTO film. An increase in O to Ti/(Ti+Co) ratio with increase in oxygen partial pressure is observed from Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy. It is revealed from x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) that oxygen vacancies are found to be higher in the CTO film than TiO2, while the valency of cobalt remains in the +2 state. Therefore, the CTO film deposited at 300mTorr does not show a complete anatase phase unlike the TiO2 film deposited at the same partial pressure. We conclude that RTFM in both films is not due to impurities/contaminants, as confirmed from XPS depth profiling and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM), but due to oxygen vacancies. The magnitude of moment, however, depends not only on the phase of TiO2 but also on the crystallinity of the films.

Original languageEnglish
Article number325301
JournalJournal Physics D: Applied Physics
Issue number32
Publication statusPublished - 15 Aug 2012
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Acoustics and Ultrasonics
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films


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