Oxidative Stress in Ageing and Chronic Degenerative Pathologies: Molecular Mechanisms Involved in Counteracting Oxidative Stress and Chronic Inflammation

Thobekile S. Leyane, Sandy W. Jere, Nicolette N. Houreld

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

102 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Ageing and chronic degenerative pathologies demonstrate the shared characteristics of high bioavailability of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress, chronic/persistent inflammation, glycation, and mitochondrial abnormalities. Excessive ROS production results in nucleic acid and protein destruction, thereby altering the cellular structure and functional outcome. To stabilise increased ROS production and modulate oxidative stress, the human body produces antioxidants, “free radical scavengers”, that inhibit or delay cell damage. Reinforcing the antioxidant defence system and/or counteracting the deleterious repercussions of immoderate reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) is critical and may curb the progression of ageing and chronic degenerative syndromes. Various therapeutic methods for ROS and oxidative stress reduction have been developed. However, scientific investigations are required to assess their efficacy. In this review, we summarise the interconnected mechanism of oxidative stress and chronic inflammation that contributes to ageing and chronic degenerative pathologies, including neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Parkinson’s disease (PD), cardiovascular diseases CVD, diabetes mellitus (DM), and chronic kidney disease (CKD). We also highlight potential counteractive measures to combat ageing and chronic degenerative diseases.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7273
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Volume23
Issue number13
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2022

Keywords

  • Alzheimer’s disease
  • Parkinson’s disease
  • antioxidants
  • chronic kidney disease
  • diabetes
  • inflammation
  • oxidative stress
  • reactive oxygen species (ROS)
  • stem cell therapy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • Molecular Biology
  • Spectroscopy
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry

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