Optimizing Graphene Oxide Encapsulated TiO2 and Hydroxyapatite; Structure and Biological Response

Asma A. Alothman, Mehrez E. El-Naggar, M. Afifi, Mohammed Sheikh Saleh Mushab, Mika Sillanpää, El Refaie Kenawy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Nanocomposites based on hydroxyapatite (HAP) are fabricated with/without combining titanium oxide (TiO2) and graphene oxide. Structure investigation was done for all compositions using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared in addition to X-ray photoelectron to study the chemical compositions of the obtained nanocomposites. The surface morphology investigation was done with the scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. In this regard, TiO2 nanoparticles were exhibited in spherical shapes, while HAP was detected as nanorods. The dimensions of HAP have been decreased from 53 and 18 to 27 and 10 nm for length and diameter, respectively. The crystallite sizes obtained from XRD data are around 15 and 33 nm for HAP and TiO2 respectively. Moreover, the diameter of TiO2 reached 80 nm. Further, the average roughness parameter (Ra) improved from 9.2 to 11.1 nm from HAP to TNC. Besides, the root mean square (Rq), maximum height of the roughness (Rt), and maximum roughness valley depth (Rv) increased to 14.7, 104, and 55.9 nm, respectively. Furthermore, cell viability enhanced from 96.3 ± 3 to 102.4 ± 3%. Besides, the antibacterial behavior improved to be 15.3 ± 1.3 and 14.2 ± 0.9 mm for TNC against E. coli and S. aureus respectively.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1306-1318
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Inorganic and Organometallic Polymers and Materials
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Antibacterial
  • Cell viability
  • Graphene oxide
  • Hydroxyapatite
  • TiO

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Polymers and Plastics
  • Materials Chemistry


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