Optimization of infrared heating conditions for precooked cowpea production using response surface methodology

Opeolu M. Ogundele, Sefater Gbashi, Samson A. Oyeyinka, Eugenie Kayitesi, Oluwafemi A. Adebo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


The infrared heating of preconditioned cowpea improves its utilization and potential application in food systems. This study investigated the effect of optimizing preconditioning and infrared heating parameters of temperature and time on cooking characteristics of precooked cowpeas using response surface methodology (RSM). The moisture level (32–57%), infrared heating temperature (114–185C), and time of processing the seeds (2–18 min) were optimized using a randomized central composite design to achieve optimal characteristics for bulk density and water absorption. A second-order polynomial regression model was fitted to the obtained data, and the fitted model was used to compute the multi-response optimum processing conditions, which were the moisture of 45%, the heating temperature of 185C, and time of 5 min. Precooked cowpea seeds from optimized conditions had a 19% increase in pectin solubility. The total phenolic and total flavonoid contents were significantly reduced through complexation of the seeds’ phenolic compounds with other macromolecules but nonetheless exhibited antioxidant properties capable of scavenging free radicals. There was also a significant reduction in phytate and oxalates by 24% and 42%, respectively, which was due to the heat causing the inactivation of these antinutrients. The obtained optimized conditions are adequate in the production of precooked cowpea seeds with improved quality.

Original languageEnglish
Article number6137
Issue number20
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2021


  • Cowpea
  • Infrared heating
  • Optimization
  • Pre-cooked
  • Preconditioning
  • RSM

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Chemistry (miscellaneous)
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Pharmaceutical Science
  • Drug Discovery
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry


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