Optimization of air gap length and capacitive auxiliary winding in three-phase induction motors based on a genetic algorithm

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4 Citations (Scopus)


There is a necessity to design a three-phase squirrel cage induction motor (SCIM) for highspeed applications with a larger air gap length in order to limit the distortion of air gap flux density, the thermal expansion of stator and rotor teeth, centrifugal forces, and the magnetic pull. To that effect, a larger air gap length lowers the power factor, efficiency, and torque density of a three-phase SCIM. This should inform motor design engineers to take special care during the design process of a three-phase SCIM by selecting an air gap length that will provide optimal performance. This paper presents an approach that would assist with the selection of an optimal air gap length (OAL) and optimal capacitive auxiliary stator winding (OCASW) configuration for a high torque per ampere (TPA) three-phase SCIM. A genetic algorithm (GA) assisted by finite element analysis (FEA) is used in the design process to determine the OAL and OCASW required to obtain a high torque per ampere without compromising the merit of achieving an excellent power factor and high efficiency for a three-phase SCIM. The performance of the optimized three-phase SCIM is compared to unoptimized machines. The results obtained from FEA are validated through experimental measurements. Owing to the penalty functions related to the value of objective and constraint functions introduced in the genetic algorithm model, both the FEA and experimental results provide evidence that an enhanced torque per ampere three-phase SCIM can be realized for a large OAL and OCASW with high efficiency and an excellent power factor in different working conditions.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4407
Issue number15
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2021


  • Design optimization based on a genetic algorithm
  • High torque per ampere
  • Optimal air gap length
  • Optimal capacitive auxiliary stator winding
  • Three-phase induction motor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Fuel Technology
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Energy (miscellaneous)
  • Control and Optimization
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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