Optimal Placement and Operation of FACTS Technologies in a Cyber-Physical Power System: Critical Review and Future Outlook

Ewaoche John Okampo, Nnamdi Nwulu, Pitshou N. Bokoro

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


With the current transitioning and increasing complexity of power systems owing to the continuous integration of distributed generators (DGs) and Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS), power system quality and security studies have extended to incorporate the impacts of these technologies. This paper presents a review of the operation and reliability impacts of FACTS technologies in improving power quality and security in modern Cyber-Physical Power Systems (CPPS). While introducing DG to the power system helps to decentralize the network for easy accessibility and enhances clean energy system, it creates new challenges such as harmonics, voltage instability, and frequency distortion. These challenges can be tackled with FACTS devices which are flexible and dynamic smart electronic controllers used to stabilize power system parameters to improve power quality and reliability. This paper examines the current state-of-the-art optimization techniques and artificial intelligence and/or computational techniques for optimal placement and operation of FACTS devices. This review highlights the generational advancement of FACTS technologies and the different objectives of optimal placement and operation of these devices. Moreover, the concept of CPPS is discussed with the potential utilization of distribution-FACTS (D-FACTS) devices for network security. Furthermore, a bibliometric analysis was carried out to show research trend of FACTS utilization. The result presents future trajectories for power utility industries and researchers interested in power system optimization and the application of FACTS technologies in smart power system networks. Some of the significant findings leads to proposed demand-side management for placement of DGs and FACTS technologies as a more strategic optimal system sizing to minimize cost. It was also concluded that future design of FACTS/D-FACTS devices must consider and appreciate interactions with the automated systems of CPPS to enhance effective integration. To this end, design modification of the operational configuration of these devices with sensors for real-time synchronized control and interaction with other CPPS technologies is an area that requires more research attention in the future.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7707
Issue number13
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2022


  • FACTS technologies
  • distributed generators
  • optimization
  • power system
  • renewable energy sources
  • smart grid
  • transient analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Science (miscellaneous)
  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Building and Construction
  • Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law


Dive into the research topics of 'Optimal Placement and Operation of FACTS Technologies in a Cyber-Physical Power System: Critical Review and Future Outlook'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this