Optimal control of Formula One car energy recovery systems

D. J.N. Limebeer, G. Perantoni, A. V. Rao

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

65 Citations (Scopus)


The utility of orthogonal collocation methods in the solution of optimal control problems relating to Formula One racing is demonstrated. These methods can be used to optimise driver controls such as the steering, braking and throttle usage, and to optimise vehicle parameters such as the aerodynamic down force and mass distributions. Of particular interest is the optimal usage of energy recovery systems (ERSs). Contemporary kinetic energy recovery systems are studied and compared with future hybrid kinetic and thermal/heat ERSs known as ERS-K and ERS-H, respectively. It is demonstrated that these systems, when properly controlled, can produce contemporary lap time using approximately two-thirds of the fuel required by earlier generation (2013 and prior) vehicles.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2065-2080
Number of pages16
JournalInternational Journal of Control
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 3 Oct 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • energy recovery systems
  • Formula One car modelling
  • lap-time simulation
  • numerical optimal control
  • orthogonal collocation
  • pseudo-spectral methods

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Computer Science Applications


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