Observation of a superparamagnetic breakdown in gadolinium chloride filled double-walled carbon nanotubes

S. Ncube, C. Coleman, E. Flahaut, S. Bhattacharyya, A. R.E. Prinsloo, C. J. Sheppard

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1 Citation (Scopus)


In this article, the magnetic properties of gadolinium chloride-filled double-walled carbon nanotubes (GdCl3@DWNTs) in the temperature range 2-300 K are explored. The temperature-dependent phonon frequencies of the G-band were studied from 80-300 K to investigate the effect of temperature on the magnetic ordering. Temperature-dependent susceptibility measurements show that the GdCl3@DWNTs sample has a pronounced superparamagnetic phase from 83 K. The temperature dependence of the G-band frequency for filled tubes exhibited a distinct difference compared to pristine nanotubes, where a sharp phonon hardening at low temperatures was observed. A correlation between the onset temperature of superparamagnetism and the abrupt G-band phonon hardening in the filled tubes was verified. GdCl3@DWNTs were characterized by a finite remnant magnetization at 300 K which decreased as the temperature was lowered because of the presence of the discontinuous magnetic nanoparticles, providing a superparamagnetic contribution characterized by an S-shaped non-saturating hysteresis loop at 2 K. Remarkably, the onset of superparamagnetism, marked by the bifurcation point, occurred at roughly the same temperature where the G-band phonon frequency showed a pronounced hardening at approximately 80 K, indicating a close correlation between phonon modes and spin clusters.

Original languageEnglish
Article number035206
JournalAIP Advances
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2021

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Physics and Astronomy


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